As part of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in the pursuit of emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized that climate change was a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets. The last annual UN climate change conference, COP25, was held in Madrid, Spain, in December 2019. COP25 is expected to be a springboard for the 2020 climate change conference, at which countries are expected to set new NPPs and funding commitments (however, the COP26 conference, to be held in November 2020, was rescheduled in November 2021 due to the COVID 19 pandemic). There are many strategies to minimize the effects of climate change. The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. During the first legally binding commitment period (2008-2012), the Kyoto Protocol required that ratification countries be required by Schedule 1 to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 5 to 8% from 1990 levels by 2012. This figure shows the variation in countries` greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2011. The EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to combat climate change. It played an important role in mediating the Paris Agreement and continues to play a leading role at the global level. The 2030 agenda, and in particular the 13 sustainability objective on climate change, sets the goal of building resilience and adaptability to climate change as a precondition for achieving and sustaining sustainable development.
Paris Agreement, 2015. The most important global agreement to date, the Paris Agreement, obliges all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions. Governments set targets known as national contributions, with a view to preventing the average global temperature from rising by 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to strive to keep it below 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also aims to achieve zero net emissions globally, where the amount of greenhouse gases emitted is equivalent to the amount removed from the atmosphere in the second half of the century. (This is also called climate neutral or carbon neutral.) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a UN body established in 1988, regularly assesses the latest climate science and establishes consensus reports for countries. “As president, I cannot look at the well-being of American citizens any other way. The Paris climate agreement is simply the latest example of the Washington agreement that penalizes the United States exclusively for the benefit of other countries and allows American workers – whom I love – and taxpayers to absorb costs in the form of lost jobs, lower wages, closed factories and sharply reduced economic output, Vox says, “why scientists are more confident than ever. climate change causes disasters. Australia has been involved in international climate negotiations since the 1980s and has had a national climate change target since 1990. A term that refers to a proposed new geological era, where human activity fundamentally alters global physical systems (climate, terrestrial forms, nutrient circuits, etc.). It is seen as a substitute for the current geological epoch of the Holocene, which is today the conventionally recognized geological epoch.
The Kyoto Protocol can be defined as the implementation of the UNFCCC. At the time, it was the first global commitment to govern emissions responsible for global warming and laid the groundwork for subsequent international agreements on climate change. Although the protocol was signed on March 16, 1998, it did not come into force until February 16, 2005. The protocol recognises that industrialized countries are the main culprits for high levels of gas emissions